A history of english literature michael alexander pdf

Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel. The idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that, in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy. In the New Testament Michael leads God’s a history of english literature michael alexander pdf against Satan’s forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. A mosaic of the same painting decorates St.

The prophet Daniel experiences a vision after having undergone a period of fasting. In the Epistle of Jude 1:9, Michael is referred to as an “archangel” when he again confronts Satan. A reference to an “archangel” also appears in the First Epistle to the Thessalonians 4:16. Michael’s enmity with Samael dates from the time when the latter was thrown down from heaven. The idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy: “When a man is in need he must pray directly to God, and neither to Michael nor to Gabriel. The rabbis declare that Michael entered upon his role of defender at the time of the biblical patriarchs.

It is said that Michael prevented Isaac from being sacrificed by his father by substituting a ram in his place, and saved Jacob, while yet in his mother’s womb, from being killed by Samael. Later Michael prevented Laban from harming Jacob. Israelites of idolatry and declared that they were consequently deserving of death by drowning in the Red Sea. Michael is also said to have destroyed the army of Sennacherib. The earliest and most famous sanctuary to Michael in the ancient Near East was also associated with healing waters.

It was the Michaelion built in the early 4th century by Emperor Constantine at Chalcedon, on the site of an earlier Temple called Sosthenion. A painting of the Archangel slaying a serpent became a major art piece at the Michaelion after Constantine defeated Licinius near there in 324, eventually leading to the standard iconography of Archangel Michael as a warrior saint slaying a dragon. Saint Michael over all the angels. In the 6th century the growth of devotions to Michael in the Western Church was manifested by the feasts dedicated to him, as recorded in the Leonine Sacramentary.

The 7th century Gelasian Sacramentary included the feast “S. The angelology of Pseudo-Dionysius which was widely read as of the 6th century gave Michael a rank in the celestial hierarchy. Catholics often refer to Michael as “Holy Michael, the Archangel” or “Saint Michael”, a title that does not indicate canonisation. In the Roman Catholic teachings Saint Michael has four main roles or offices. His first role is the leader of the Army of God and the leader of heaven’s forces in their triumph over the powers of hell.

The second and third roles of Michael in Catholic teachings deal with death. In his second role, Michael is the angel of death, carrying the souls of all the deceased to heaven. Catholic prayers often refer to this role of Michael. Thus, the nomenclature of villages around the Bay of Biscay reflects that history. Roman Catholicism includes traditions such as the Prayer to Saint Michael which specifically asks for the faithful to be “defended” by the saint. A statue of Archangel Michael in Kiev, Ukraine, where he is the patron saint. The Eastern Orthodox accord Michael the title “Archistrategos”, or “Supreme Commander of the Heavenly Hosts”.

The Eastern Orthodox pray to their guardian angels and above all to Michael and Gabriel. The Eastern Orthodox have always had strong devotions to angels, and the trend continues to date with the term “Bodiless Powers” applied to them. A number of feasts dedicated to Archangel Michael are celebrated by the Eastern Orthodox throughout the year. Archangel Michael is mentioned in a number of Eastern Orthodox hymns and prayer, and his icons are widely used within Eastern Orthodox churches. In many Eastern Orthodox icons, Christ is accompanied by a number of angels, Michael being a predominant figure among them. In Russia many monasteries, cathedrals, court and merchant churches are dedicated to the Chief Commander Michael, and most Russian cities have a church or chapel dedicated to the Archangel Michael.

The place of Michael in the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is as a saintly intercessor, where he is seen as the one: who presents to God the prayers of the just, who accompanies the souls of the dead to heaven, who defeats the devil. Many Protestant Christians do not call upon the intercession of saints. Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael generally regarded with an elevated status, e. Michael was the Logos and Gabriel the Holy Spirit. Michael continues to be recognized among Protestants by key churches dedicated to him, e. Seventh-day Adventists believe that “Michael” is but one of the many titles applied to the Son of God, the second person of the Godhead.

According to Adventists, such a view does not in any way conflict with the belief in his full deity and eternal preexistence, nor does it in the least disparage his person and work. In the Seventh-day Adventist view, the statement in some translations of 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18: “For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven, with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God” identifies Jesus as Archangel, which is Michael. Jehovah’s Witnesses believe Michael to be another name for Jesus Christ in heaven, in his pre-human and post-resurrection existence. They believe the prominent roles assigned to Michael at Daniel 12:1 and Revelation 12:7, 19:14, 16, are identical to Jesus’ roles, being the one chosen to lead God’s people and as the only one who “stands up”, identifying the two as the same spirit being. This illustration from Walters manuscript W. In Islam, Michael, also spelled Mikail, is one of the archangels and said to be responsible for the forces of nature. Allah is an enemy to those who reject Faith.