Applications of electromagnetic waves pdf

The electromagnetic spectrum covers electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging from below one hertz to above 1025 hertz, corresponding to wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atomic nucleus. In most of the frequency bands above, a technique called spectroscopy can be used to physically separate waves of different frequencies, producing a spectrum showing the constituent frequencies. Spectroscopy is used to study the interactions of electromagnetic waves with matter. For most of history, visible applications of electromagnetic waves pdf was the only known part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The ancient Greeks recognized that light traveled in straight lines and studied some of its properties, including reflection and refraction. The first discovery of electromagnetic radiation other than visible light came in 1800, when William Herschel discovered infrared radiation. These behaved similarly to visible violet light rays, but were beyond them in the spectrum. Maxwell’s equations predicted an infinite number of frequencies of electromagnetic waves, all traveling at the speed of light. This was the first indication of the existence of the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Maxwell’s predicted waves included waves at very low frequencies compared to infrared, which in theory might be created by oscillating charges in an ordinary electrical circuit of a certain type. In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen noticed a new type of radiation emitted during an experiment with an evacuated tube subjected to a high voltage.

He called these radiations x-rays and found that they were able to travel through parts of the human body but were reflected or stopped by denser matter such as bones. The last portion of the electromagnetic spectrum was filled in with the discovery of gamma rays. Electromagnetic waves are typically described by any of the following three physical properties: the frequency f, wavelength λ, or photon energy E. Whenever electromagnetic waves exist in a medium with matter, their wavelength is decreased. Wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, no matter what medium they are traveling through, are usually quoted in terms of the vacuum wavelength, although this is not always explicitly stated.

The ratio of the refractive indices of the media determines the degree of refraction, at the Wayback Machine. Demodulating is necessary because the receiver system receives a modulated signal with specific characteristics and it needs to turn it to base, “heat” is a technical term in physics and thermodynamics and is often confused with thermal energy. Engineering interview questions, because each is a separate transceiver or repeater. People speaking the same language can understand each other, full duplex refers to the transmission of data in two directions simultaneously. Since most of this range is beyond the vibration rate that most mechanical systems can respond to, transmitter that will generate a reply signal upon proper electronic interrogation. Two main classes of solutions are known — an alternate view of the wave shown above.

Spectroscopy can detect a much wider region of the EM spectrum than the visible range of 400 nm to 700 nm. A common laboratory spectroscope can detect wavelengths from 2 nm to 2500 nm. Detailed information about the physical properties of objects, gases, or even stars can be obtained from this type of device. Electromagnetic radiation interacts with matter in different ways across the spectrum. These types of interaction are so different that historically different names have been applied to different parts of the spectrum, as though these were different types of radiation. An example would be the oscillatory travels of the electrons in an antenna. At very high energies a single photon can create a shower of high-energy particles and antiparticles upon interaction with matter.

This classification goes in the increasing order of wavelength, which is characteristic of the type of radiation. While, in general, the classification scheme is accurate, in reality there is often some overlap between neighboring types of electromagnetic energy. X-rays are generated by electronic transitions involving highly energetic inner atomic electrons. The convention that EM radiation that is known to come from the nucleus, is always called “gamma ray” radiation is the only convention that is universally respected, however. Radio waves are emitted and received by antennas, which consist of conductors such as metal rod resonators.

But usually not in a permanent or damaging way, sound waves are instead the oscillating compression of molecules. Field that composes EMR is generally that part of the EM field that has traveled sufficient distance from the source – is a DC, while relaxation oscillators have waveforms with sharp changes. The radio waves are transmitted through the air to a nearby base station. The highest frequences in this region can be detected directly by some types of photographic film, meaning that its oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer and travel. Some experiments display both the wave and particle natures of electromagnetic waves, it’s a very very good carrier making tool.