This article is about the chemical comprehensive organic name reactions and reagents pdf. For the material, see Olefin fiber.
Not to be confused with Alkane or Alkyne. A 3D model of ethylene, the simplest alkene. As a consequence, substituted alkenes may exist as one of two isomers, called cis or trans isomers. This contradicts a common textbook assertion that the p orbitals would be unable sustain such a bond. For bridged alkenes, Bredt’s rule states that a double bond cannot occur at the bridgehead of a bridged ring system unless the rings are large enough. The physical properties of alkenes and alkanes are similar. They are colourless, nonpolar, combustable, and almost odorless.
Most reactions of alkenes involve additions to this pi bond, forming new single bonds. Alkenes react in many addition reactions, which occur by opening up the double-bond. Most of these addition reactions follow the mechanism of electrophilic addition. Hydrogenation of alkenes produces the corresponding alkanes. C in the presence of a metallic catalyst. Hydration, the addition of water across the double bond of alkenes, yields alcohols.
The reaction is catalyzed by strong acids such as sulfuric acid. This reaction is carried out on an industrial scale to produce ethanol. This patterns is known as Markovnikov’s rule. Alkenes react with water and halogens to form halohydrins by an addition reaction. Markovnikov regiochemistry and anti stereochemistry occur. Alkenes are oxidized with a large number of oxidizing agents.
In the presence of oxygen, alkenes burn with a bright flame to produce carbon dioxide and water. KMnO4 or with osmium tetroxide or other oxidants. Polymerization of alkenes is a reaction that yields polymers of high industrial value at great economy, such as the plastics polyethylene and polypropylene. Alkenes are ligands in transition metal alkene complexes. Mono- and diolefins are often used as ligands in stable complexes. Alkenes are produced by hydrocarbon cracking. US and Mideast and naphtha in Europe and Asia.
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Related to this is catalytic dehydrogenation, where an alkane loses hydrogen at high temperatures to produce a corresponding alkene. This is the reverse of the catalytic hydrogenation of alkenes. This process is also known as reforming. Both processes are endothermic and are driven towards the alkene at high temperatures by entropy.
One of the principal methods for alkene synthesis in the laboratory is the room elimination of alkyl halides, alcohols, and similar compounds. Most common is the β-elimination via the E2 or E1 mechanism, but α-eliminations are also known. The E2 mechanism provides a more reliable β-elimination method than E1 for most alkene syntheses. When an alkyl halide is used, the reaction is called a dehydrohalogenation. Alkenes can be synthesized from alcohols via dehydration, in which case water is lost via the E1 mechanism. Chugaev elimination and the Grieco elimination. Alkenes can be prepared indirectly from alkyl amines.
Bäcklund reaction, via a three-membered ring sulfone intermediate. Such reactions are sometimes called olefinations. The Wittig reagent is itself prepared easily from triphenylphosphine and an alkyl halide. Related to the Wittig reaction is the Peterson olefination. This uses a less accessible silicon-based reagent in place of the phosphorane, but it allows for the selection of E- or Z-products. Alkenes can be prepared by exchange with other alkenes, in a reaction known as olefin metathesis.
Frequently, loss of ethene gas is used to drive the reaction towards a desired product. In many cases, a mixture of geometric isomers is obtained, but the reaction tolerates many functional groups. Transition metal catalyzed hydrovinylation is another important alkene synthesis process starting from alkene itself. Reduction of alkynes is a useful method for the stereoselective synthesis of disubstituted alkenes. For the preparation multisubstituted alkenes, carbometalation of alkynes can give rise to a large variety of alkene derivatives. Alkenes can be synthesized from other alkenes via rearrangement reactions. Alder reaction, a cyclohexene derivative is prepared from a diene and a reactive or electron-deficient alkene.