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This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Rhizoids are protuberances that extend from the lower epidermal cells of bryophytes and algae. Plants originated in aquatic environments and gradually migrated to land during their long course of evolution.

In water or near it, plants could absorb water from their surroundings, with no need for any special absorbing organ or tissue. Additionally, in the primitive states of plant development, tissue differentiation and division of labor was minimal, thus the requirement for specialized water absorbing tissue was not required. Rhizoids absorb water by capillary action, in which water moves up between threads of rhizoids and not through each of them as it does in roots. In fungi, rhizoids are small branching hyphae that grow downwards from the stolons that anchor the fungus to the substrate, where they release digestive enzymes and absorb digested organic material. In certain algae, there is an extensive rhizoidal system that allows the alga to anchor itself to a sandy substrate from which it can absorb nutrients.

Microscopic free-floating species, however, do not have rhizoids at all. National Council for Science and the Environment. This fungus-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. This botany article is a stub.

This page was last edited on 14 January 2018, at 00:47. Not to be confused with cryptogram. Other names, such as “thallophytes”, “lower plants”, and “spore plants” are also occasionally used. At one time, the cryptogams were formally recognised as a group within the plant kingdom.