Patchy depapillation of filiform papillae with prominence of the fungiform papillae. Smooth, oral manifestations of leukemia pdf appearance of the tongue, caused by loss of lingual papillae.
Tongue color changes, usually to a darker red color than the normal white-pink color of a healthy tongue. Some use the term secondary burning mouth syndrome in cases where a detectable cause, such as glossitis, for an oral burning sensation. Depending upon the underlying cause, there may be additional signs and symptoms such as pallor, oral ulceration and angular cheilitis. Iron-deficiency anemia is mainly caused by blood loss, such as may occur during menses or gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Pernicious anemia is usually caused by autoimmune destruction of gastric parietal cells.
Parietal cells secrete intrinsic factor which is required for the absorption of vitamin B12. Bacterial, viral or fungal infections can cause glossitis. Candida species are involved in median rhomboid glossitis. Syphilis is now relatively rare, but the tertiary stage can cause diffuse glossitis and atrophy of lingual papillae, termed “syphilitic glossitis”, “luetic glossitis” or “atrophic glossitis of tertiary syphilis”. Many conditions can cause glossitis via malnutrition or malabsorption, which creates the nutritional deficiencies described above, although other mechanisms may be involved in some of those conditions listed. A painful tongue may be an indication of an underlying serious medical condition and nearly always merits assessment by a physician or dental surgeon. Glossitis could be classified as a group of tongue diseases or gastrointestinal diseases.
It may be primary, where there is no underlying cause, or secondary where it is a sign or symptom of another condition. Candidiasis may be a concurrent finding or an alternative cause of erythema, burning, and atrophy. This condition is characterized by a persistent erythematous, rhomboidal depapillated lesion in the central area of the dorsum of the tongue, just in front of the circumvallate papillae. Geographic tongue, also termed benign migratory glossitis, is a common condition which usually affects the dorsal surface of the tongue. It is characterized by patches of depapillation and erythema bordered by a whitish peripheral zone. These patches give the tongue the appearance of a map, hence the name. Unlike glossitis due to nutritional deficiencies and anemia, the lesions of geographic tongue move around the tongue over time.
Drinking plenty of water and the production of enough saliva, aid in the reduction of bacterial growth. Minimizing irritants or injury in the mouth when possible can aid in the prevention of glossitis. The goal of treatment is to reduce inflammation. Treatment usually does not require hospitalization unless tongue swelling is severe. Good oral hygiene is necessary, including thorough tooth brushing at least twice a day, and flossing at least daily. Corticosteroids such as prednisone may be given to reduce the inflammation of glossitis.
One review reported overall prevalence ranges of 0. New York, NY: Britannica Educational Pub. Interventions for treating burning mouth syndrome”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Oral Piercing: Complications and Side Effects”. Colonization of Candida: prevalence among tongue-pierced and non-pierced immunocompetent adults”.
Oral manifestations of celiac disease: a clinical guide for dentists”. Tooth defects that result from celiac disease may resemble those caused by too much fluoride or a maternal or early childhood illness. Oral signs in the diagnosis of celiac disease: review of the literature”. Orofacial manifestations of hematological disorders: anemia and hemostatic disorders”. Common tongue conditions in primary care”. Herpetic geometric glossitis: a distinctive pattern of lingual herpes simplex virus infection”.
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