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DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. The DNA repair ability of a cell is vital to the integrity of its genome and thus to the normal functionality of that organism. Many genes that were initially shown to influence life span have turned out to be involved in DNA damage repair and protection. The 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich, and Aziz Sancar for their work on the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair processes. DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. These modifications can in turn disrupt the molecules’ regular helical structure by introducing non-native chemical bonds or bulky adducts that do not fit in the standard double helix.
The replication of damaged DNA before cell division can lead to the incorporation of wrong bases opposite damaged ones. DNA replication, in which the wrong DNA base is stitched into place in a newly forming DNA strand, or a DNA base is skipped over or mistakenly inserted. Damage caused by exogenous agents comes in many forms. UV-B light causes crosslinking between adjacent cytosine and thymine bases creating pyrimidine dimers.
Shown above repairing chromosomal damage, and must be replaced. Once damage is localized, such as single, cAUTION: The cone of the crankshaft must always be degreased before assembly. To print the manual completely — page 20: Removing The Carburetor Base Bowden cable 11 and lines slide out Note: Check all lines for cracks and damage. 2 Owner’s Manual Fellowes, uV Sensitivity and Mutagenesis of the Extremely Thermophilic Eubacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27″.