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Her father was a conservator of forests, and her mother was a farmer with a love for nature. She was educated at St Mary’s School in Nainital, and at the Convent of Jesus and Mary, Dehradun. Shiva studied physics at Panjab University in Chandigarh, graduating as a bachelor of science in 1972 and a master of science in 1974. Vandana Shiva has written and spoken extensively about advances in the fields of agriculture and food. In 1982, she founded the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology. This led to the creation of Navdanya in 1991, a national movement to protect the diversity and integrity of living resources, especially native seed, the promotion of organic farming and fair trade. In the area of intellectual property rights and biodiversity, Shiva and her team at the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology challenged the biopiracy of neem, basmati and wheat.
She has served on expert groups of government on Biodiversity and IPR legislation. RFSTE to educate farmers of the benefits of maintaining diverse and individualized crops rather than accepting offers from monoculture food producers. The initiative established over 40 seed banks across India to provide regional opportunity for diverse agriculture. In 1990, she wrote a report for the FAO on Women and Agriculture entitled, “Most Farmers in India are Women”. Australian publisher called Spinifex said to be based on her Sydney Peace Prize Lecture made in 2010 regarding Indian social-ecological concerns and insights. This book delves into biodiversity and the relationship between communities and nature.
Vandana Shiva has spent much of her life in the defence and celebration of biodiversity and indigenous knowledge. She has worked to promote biodiversity in agriculture to increase productivity, nutrition, farmer’s incomes and It is for this work she was recognised as an ‘Environmental Hero’ by Time magazine in 2003. Her work on agriculture started in 1984 after the violence in Punjab and the gas leak in Bhopal from Union Carbide’s pesticide manufacturing plant. In an interview with David Barsamian, Shiva argues that the seed-chemical package promoted by Green Revolution agriculture has depleted fertile soil, destroyed living ecosystems, and negatively impacted people’s health.
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Central to Shiva’s work is the idea of seed freedom, or the rejection of corporate patents on seeds. Shiva has criticised the agreement as having close ties with the corporate sector and opening the door to further patents on life. Shiva strongly opposes golden rice, a breed of rice that has been genetically engineered to biosynthesize beta-carotene, a precursor of Vitamin A. It has the potential to assist in alleviating the vitamin A deficiency suffered by a third of preschool-aged children worldwide. Shiva claims that Golden Rice is more harmful than beneficial in her explanation of what she calls the “Golden Rice hoax”: “Unfortunately, Vitamin A rice is a hoax, and will bring further dispute to plant genetic engineering where public relations exercises seem to have replaced science in promotion of untested, unproven and unnecessary technology This is a recipe for creating hunger and malnutrition, not solving it. In the 2013 report “The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition”, two economists, Wesseler and Zilberman from Munich University and the University of California at Berkeley respectively calculated that the absence of Golden Rice in India had caused the loss of over 1. According to Shiva, “Soaring seed prices in India have resulted in many farmers being mired in debt and turning to suicide”.
The creation of seed monopolies, the destruction of alternatives, the collection of superprofits in the form of royalties, and the increasing vulnerability of monocultures has created a context for debt, suicides, and agrarian distress. According to data from the Indian government, nearly 75 percent rural debt is due to purchased inputs. However, farmer suicides had begun to grow before the introduction of the GM seeds, and the growth decreased when GM seeds were introduced. Shiva replied to these assertions, that her critics had reduced the issue to GM cottons and ignored the issue of seed monopolies, and that the suicide figures were from the government statistics of the National Bureau of Crime records.