This article is about ethnic Spaniards. For the ethnic make-up of people in Spain, see The new spaniards pdf of Spain. This article needs additional citations for verification.
The Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe, first reaching Spain in the 15th century. Marble bust of Roman Emperor Trajan, born in Roman Hispania, modern-day Seville. In more recent times the Iberians are believed to have arrived or developed in the region between the 4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC, initially settling along the Mediterranean coast. The Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC transformed most of the region into a series of Latin-speaking provinces.
The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial, arrived in the peninsula in 409 AD. After two centuries of domination by the Visigothic Kingdom, the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by a Muslim force under Tariq Bin Ziyad in 711. The Caliphate of Córdoba effectively collapsed during a ruinous civil war between 1009 and 1013, although it was not finally abolished until 1031 when al-Andalus broke up into a number of mostly independent mini-states and principalities called taifas. In 1086 the Almoravid ruler of Morocco, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, was invited by the Muslim princes in Iberia to defend them against Alfonso VI, King of Castile and León. In that year, Tashfin crossed the straits to Algeciras and inflicted a severe defeat on the Christians at the Battle of Sagrajas. By 1094, Yusuf ibn Tashfin had removed all Muslim princes in Iberia and had annexed their states, except for the one at Zaragoza. He also regained Valencia from the Christians.
In 1469 the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile signaled the launch of the final assault on the Emirate of Granada. The King and Queen convinced the Pope to declare their war a crusade. The Christians crushed one center of resistance after another and finally, in January 1492, after a long siege, the Moorish sultan Muhammad XII surrendered the fortress palace, the renowned Alhambra. The Canary Islands were conquered between 1402 and 1496 and their indigenous Berber populations, the Guanches, were gradually absorbed by Spanish settlers. Spanish conquest of the Iberian part of Navarre was commenced by Ferdinand II of Aragon and completed by Charles V in a series of military campaigns extending from 1512 to 1524, while the war lasted until 1528 in the Navarre to the north of the Pyrenees.
Between 1568-1571, Charles V armies fought and defeated a general insurrection of the Muslims of the mountains of Granada, after which he ordered the dispersal of up to 80,000 Granadans throughout Spain. The union of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon as well as the conquest of Granada, Navarre and the Canary Islands led to the formation of the Spanish state as known today. This allowed for the development of a Spanish identity based on the Spanish language and a local form of Catholicism, which slowly took hold in a territory which remained culturally, linguistically and religiously very diverse. A majority of Jews were forcibly converted to Catholicism during the 14th and 15th centuries and those remaining were expelled from Spain in 1492. The open practice of Islam was by Spain’s sizeable Mudejar population was similarly outlawed. In the 16th century, following the military conquest of most of the new continent, perhaps 240,000 Spaniards entered American ports. They were joined by 450,000 in the next century.
By the end of the Spanish Civil War, some 500,000 Spanish Republican refugees had crossed the border into France. From 1961 to 1974, at the height of the guest worker in Western Europe, about 100,000 Spaniards emigrated each year. Respect to the existing cultural pluralism is important to many Spaniards. Data on ethnicity is not collected in Spain, although the Government’s statistical agency CIS estimated in 2007 that the number of Gitanos present in Spain is probably around one million. The population of Spain is becoming increasingly diverse due to recent immigration.
This section needs additional citations for verification. La Mancha, speak local dialects known as “transitional dialects” between Andalusian and Castilian Spanish. The number of speakers of Spanish as a mother tongue is roughly 35. Spanish was exported to the Americas due to over three centuries of Spanish colonial rule starting with the arrival of Christopher Columbus to Santo Domingo in 1492.
Roman Catholicism is by far the largest denomination present in Spain. Outside of Europe, Latin America has the largest population of people with ancestors from Spain. These include people of full or partial Spanish ancestry. 10,017,244 Americans who identify themselves with Spanish ancestry. The listings above shows the ten countries with known collected data on people with ancestors from Spain, although the definitions of each of these are somewhat different and the numbers cannot really be compared.
Ausländeranteil in Deutschland bis 2015 – Statistik”. Censo electoral de españoles residentes en el extranjero 2009 Archived 27 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Embassy of Spain in Guatemala City, Guatemala profile. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Reconocerán nacionalidad española a descendientes de exiliados :: YVKE Mundial”.
Associação Campo Arqueológico de Tavira, Tavira, Portugal. The Columbian Mosaic in Colonial America”. The Spanish of the Canary Islands”. Spanish Civil War fighters look back”. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008.
National Institute of Statistics: Advance Municipal Register to January 1, 2006. Spain attracts record levels of immigrants seeking jobs and sun”. European languages, like French, English, German, from Arabic via medieval Spanish. US Census Bureau 2014 American Community Survey B03001 1-Year Estimates HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN retrieved 18 October 2015. The Source: A Guidebook to American Genealogy”. Resultados Básicos Censo 2011 Archived 13 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.